OPEN THREAD 20200117

Basically, all legal free speech is allowed. We will assist the authorities in dealing with illegal speech. You are each other’s moderators. Have fun. And don’t forget to MAGA at nuclear levels.

Citizen U

Day 72 – HAFNIUM.

20 thoughts on “OPEN THREAD 20200117

            1. Don’t lie to yourself

              It’s imperative to face facts

              These are dangerous times to lie to oneself

              Take note before it’s too late

              Don’t deceive yourselves

              No more self-deception

              Accept the truth of this moment

              Wake up and smell the coffee

              The moment of truth is here

              Remember this moment

              Never forget


              I’ll keep thinking! 😀

              Liked by 2 people

              1. Yes these are some good ones! A little more targeted wordsmithing to get something to the level of a memorable slogan.

                “Omit needless words” 😉

                Liked by 1 person

        1. See, that’s the thing. Every “Q saying” is its own thing. None of them is quite like a Sundance saying. None equates. They’re all “Q”.

          “Don’t look away” IS roughly the same subject as “these people are sick”, but it’s an imperative. “These people are sick” is a dismissive. They’re both great, but they have different effects.

          There is no substitute for Q! There’s only Q! 😀

          Liked by 2 people

  1. Hafnium was discovered in 1923, making it the last stable element to be discovered (the next-to-last was rhenium, in 1908). Unlike some “discovered” elements from the last two weeks, however, hafnium was isolated the same year by the same guys.

    With all the difficulty of prying all the rare earths apart, hafnium is relatively easy to separate from most other elements……with the very large exception of zirconium, which sits right above hafnium one row higher.

    There is a tendency for columns in the periodic table to have some sort of order — for instance, fluorine is the most reactive halogen, and they get progressively weaker down to iodine; lithium is the least reactive alkali metal, getting progressively more violent down to cesium. This is generally explained by ionic radius — the distance from the nucleus to electrons that can bond. Heavier atoms usually have a larger ionic radius, but zirconium’s ionic radius is 0.79 angstroms, while the much-heavier hafnium sports an ionic radius of 0.78 angstroms. This makes their chemistry darned-near identical.

    (This paragraph may be skipped) The reason for the ionic radii being nearly identical is the so-called “lanthanide contraction”. Protons and electrons attract each other. While you can stuff more protons into the nucleus for quite a while, electrons form shells. The first two electrons fill the first shell — and the next electron is a little bit further away from the nucleus and the first two electrons block a bit of the attraction. The second shell holds eight electrons — and the next electron is a little bit further away from the nucleus and the ten electrons block a bit of the attraction. Until you get to the fourth shell f subshell lanthanides, that don’t push electrons further away and don’t block the attraction. If you’d been graphing the attraction as an upward sloping line, you might call this a “lanthanide contraction” — but looking at zirconium and hafnium you’d probably call it a “4f stasis”.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Great stuff! I had forgotten all about the “lanthanide contraction”. WOW. That is something I remember from back when I was young and dumb and had goo-goo eyes for all things chemical, and was completely snowed by FAKE SCIENCE.

      Which is not to say that the lanthanide contraction is fake science, but if somebody could make money claiming we had to rid the planet of lanthanides by sending them for waste burial on Zeta Reticuli 3, so that the lanthanide contraction wouldn’t screw up the climate and cause allergies, then I’m sure this could be arranged. 😉

      Liked by 1 person

  2. So, you’ve got two elements that are chemically VERY similar — one’s just heavier than the other one. Just use hafnium as if it were a very heavy steady isotope of zirconium and ignore the difference, right?

    ……Except zirconium is often used for hardware in nuclear reactors, being that it’s practically transparent to neutrons and resists corrosion. And hafnium is also used in nuclear reactors — for control rods, being that it’s a giant neutron suck and some isotopes can even absorb two neutrons per atom (and resists corrosion).

    So about half of hafnium produced is as a byproduct of zirconium purification for nuclear reactors, and the majority of hafnium’s industrial use is as nuclear control rods (where they could be contaminated with a bit of zirconium).

    Liked by 1 person

  3. The mixed carbide tantalum hafnium carbide (Ta4HfC5) possesses the highest melting point of any currently known compound, 4215 K (3942 °C, 7128 °F) [what do you melt it in?]. Hafnium carbide is the most refractory binary compound known, with a melting point over 3890 °C, and hafnium nitride is the most refractory of all known metal nitrides, with a melting point of 3310 °C.

    Other industrial uses of hafnium include alloys for liquid rocket thruster nozzles. Quelle surprise!

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Hafnium-oxide based compounds are used as gate insulators in recent high-density semiconductor manufacture. As geometries continue to shrink, we’ll see if this becomes more or less popular.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. As you are probably aware, there have been some recent demographic changes in Colorado. Pot is now legal — soon it’ll be mandatory — and there are many voting citizens who couldn’t identify the Western Slope or anything in it.

    Over on the “civilized” side, a guy walks into a bar. Not a fern bar, nor a yuppie bar with stock tickers, nor a sports bar with sixteen meaningless sports events on suspended widescreen TVs. A bar. A dark, quiet place with a long piece of specialized furniture with stools on one side and a proprietor on the other. The guy has been weathered and wrinkled by sun and time, and his boots, hat, and jacket are coated with trail dust. He finds a stool, settles in, and tells the barman, “whiskey”.

    Down at the end of the bar, a recent Portland transplant with various facial piercings and neon-colored hair asks, “whiskey-guy — what do you do around here?”

    “I move livestock. I take cattle and sheep from the winter barns to the summer pastures, then bring ’em back in again to the barns or the rail head.” Feeling polite, he then says, “you?”

    Completely oblivious to this truthful answer, and outraged by the toxic masculinity inherent in his response, she declares, “Me? I’m a lesbian. I’m asleep — I dream about pussy; I get up and make my coffee — I’m thinking about pussy; all day long, if I lose concentration, I think about pussy; and when I curl up with my seven cats to sleep at night, I’m thinking about pussy. With that, she slams down the last of her drink and storms off in a huff.

    The man signals the bartender for a refill, drinks it quickly, signals again, and drinks that quickly…..then signals for the barkeep again. This is all in complete silence.

    When the barman brings his next whiskey, he asks, “are you ok?”

    And the man replies, “for forty years, I believed I was a cowboy…..and just tonight I discovered I’ve been a lesbian.”

    Liked by 2 people

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